5 THINGS! You Didn’t Know About Milk Thistle 100mg (#0077-100)

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A Minerals Primer — Important Things You Should Know About Minerals



Have you ever noticed that most “multi-vitamin” formulations also contain multi-minerals?  That’s because vitamins need minerals to be effective.  An interesting fact is that the body can use minerals without vitamins, but it cannot use vitamins without minerals1.

Minerals are naturally occurring chemical elements that are found in the earth.  We benefit from the nutrients that minerals provide when we eat plants that have absorbed minerals from the soil or water or animals that have eaten the plants.  Minerals are extracted from mineral salts (molecules such as sulfate, carbonate, citrate, oxide or other negatively charged chemical group) for use in dietary supplements.

Kirkman® offers a blend of minerals in our hypoallergenic Multiple Mineral Complex Pro-Support (#0063-180) and Advanced Mineral Support (#0325-180).  Kirkman® also offers extensive lines of single mineral supplements (for a complete list click here) and multi-vitamin/mineral supplements (for a complete list click here).


The Importance of Minerals

Minerals are needed for the proper composition of body fluids, including blood, and for the proper composition of tissues, bone, teeth, muscles and nerves.  Minerals also play a significant role in maintaining healthy nerve function, the regulation of muscle tone, and supporting a healthy cardiovascular system.

Like vitamins, minerals also function as coenzymes that allow the body to perform its biochemical functions including:

  • energy production;
  • growth;
  • healing;
  • proper utilization of vitamins and other nutrients.

The human body must have a proper chemical balance that depends on the levels of different minerals in the body and in the ratios of certain mineral levels to one another.  If one mineral level is out of balance, all other mineral levels may be affected.  If this type of imbalance is not corrected, a chain reaction of imbalances can begin that may lead to serious health problems.2

The late Dr. Linus Pauling, winner of two Nobel prizes, and a founder of the Linus Pauling Institute, which since 1973 has been devoted to nutrient research, said that minerals were the key to good health.  “You can trace every sickness, every disease and every ailment to a mineral deficiency, ” Dr. Pauling was quoted to say.3

Classifications of Minerals

Minerals that are considered vital to good health, fitness, and mental well-being are divided into two primary groups: major minerals (also known as macro minerals) and trace minerals (also known as micro minerals). 

Major minerals are required by the body in relatively large amounts.  There are seven major minerals, which include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and sulfur. 

Trace minerals, though only required in minute amounts by the body are, nevertheless, essential for good health. Primary trace minerals include iron, zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, manganese, and iodine.4 

More About Major Minerals

Note:  The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are indicated for each mineral for males and females nine years of age and older (not including infants, children under the age of 8 or pregnant or lactating women). Developed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, they incorporate Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) (the average daily dietary intake level; sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all [97-98 per cent] healthy individuals in a group.)  The DRIs, which are more comprehensive than the RDAs, were updated in 2016 and are expected to replace the RDAs in the future.5


Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body.  It makes up 1.5-2% of our body weight, with bones making up about 99% of the body’s calcium content.  The major function of calcium is to build and maintain healthy bones and teeth; however, it is also involved in much of the body’s enzyme activity as well as regulation of cardiovascular function. The DRIs for calcium are 1,000-1,300 mg/day.  


Magnesium is involved in more biochemical functions than any other mineral in the body.  Over 300 metabolic reactions involve this important nutrient so it is prudent to ensure your daily intake is sufficient.  Magnesium is also extremely important in regulating heart rhythms.  The recommended daily value for magnesium is 400 mg. and most dietary surveys indicate that most individuals only get 220-320 mg. per day, a suboptimal level.  It is important, however, not to over consume magnesium since excess amounts of this mineral have a laxative effect.  The DRIs for magnesium are 240-420 mg/day.


Phosphorus is an important macromineral in the body, but, like potassium, the diet usually supplies adequate levels.  Phosphorus deficiency and the need for supplementation are rare because almost all foods are rich in this mineral, including carbonated beverages.  Some nutritional supplements may contain a small amount of phosphorus as a safety factor, but that supplementation is seldom required.  The DRIs for phosphorus are 700-1250 mg/day.


Potassium is a mineral necessary for good health and organ function, though most individuals’ potassium requirements are met by their diet.  Additional supplementation outside of the diet is NOT RECOMMENDED.  This is because life-sustaining functions are regulated by potassium and upsetting the chemical balance of this nutrient can be life- threatening.  For this reason, potassium is not found in significant quantities in dietary supplements.  Potassium should only be supplemented if recommended by your physician.  The DRIs for potassium are 4,500-4,700 mg/day.

Sodium and Chloride

Sodium is an essential mineral that your body needs to function properly.  Along with the mineral chloride, it helps regulate the balance of fluids inside and outside of your cells and blood pressure.  Sodium also helps with the functions of nerves and muscles.  Sodium and chloride make up table salt.  Because of the liberal use of salt in American diets, sodium sufficiency is not a common problem. Excessive sodium and chloride can lead to serious health problems including high blood pressure and kidney issues. The DRIs for sodium are 1,200-1,500 mg/day.  The DRIs for chloride are 1,800-2,300 mg/day.

Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in the body and is essential for life.  Sulfur contributes important amino acids that create protein for cells, enzymes, tissues, and hormones.  We get sulfur from the proteins in meats, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, nuts and beans. 

More About Trace Minerals


Chromium is an essential mineral in human nutrition, though its mechanisms are not well understood.  Chromium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and is important in glucose regulating activities. Good sources of dietary chromium are whole grains, cereals, mushrooms and meat. 

The average American diet is chromium deficient because chromium is poorly absorbed, even from chromium rich foods.  For that reason, most multiple vitamin/mineral products contain chromium.  As with selenium, however, excess chromium can be toxic and lead to organ failure.  The DRIs for chromium are 20-35 mcg/day.


Copper is an essential trace mineral in human and animal nutrition.  Copper aids in the formation of various human tissues and red blood cells.  It also works synergistically with zinc and vitamin C in the formation of skin protein. Most individuals consume enough copper in their diets so that additional supplementation is not necessary.  In fact, excessive copper intake can lead to copper toxicity and a drop in zinc and vitamin C levels.  For this reason, copper supplements are not common.  The DRIs for copper are 700-900 mcg/day.  


Trace amounts of iodine are vital to support a healthy thyroid gland.  Iodized salt, in common use these days, provides adequate amounts of iron in most individual’s diets. Other foods high in iodine content include seafood, kelp, asparagus, spinach, mushrooms, Swiss chard, turnip greens and sesame seeds. Individuals on a low sodium diet may not consume enough iodized salt to get their daily requirement, so those individuals will need to make sure they take a supplement or eat iodine rich foods.  The DRIs for iodine are 120-150 mcg/day. 


Iron is essential in the human diet for the respiration process, the transport of oxygen in the blood and in the oxygenation of red blood cells.  Estimates are that 25% of the world’s population is iron deficient. Even so, iron supplementation should only be taken if recommended by your physician or at a low, daily dose in multi-vitamins.

Iron rich foods include eggs, meats, whole grains, almonds, avocados, beets, and green vegetables.  Iron found in breads, milk and cereals are not well absorbed.  If your doctor prescribes iron supplementation, it should be taken with food as iron tends to upset and irritate the digestive and gastrointestinal tracts.  The DRIs for iron are 8-18 mg/day.


Manganese is a mineral element that is both nutritionally essential and potentially toxic.  It is a constituent of multiple enzymes and an activator of other enzymes.  Manganese superoxide dismutase is the principal antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress because it consumes 90% of the oxygen used by cells.  This mineral aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, cholesterol, vitamin B-1 and vitamin E. Some of the best sources of manganese are grains, nuts, vegetables and teas. The DRIs for manganese are 1.6-2.3 mg/day.


Molybdenum is a trace mineral required by both animals and humans to activate certain enzymes used in catabolism and detoxification processes.  Though deficiencies in humans are very rare, individuals undergoing detoxification protocols may want to supplement with this mineral just to be sure catabolism is at its optimal levels. 

Molybdenum is found naturally in beans, liver, cereal grains, peas, legumes and dark green leafy vegetables.  Molybdenum intake should not exceed 1 mg. daily.  Excessive amounts can lead to gout or molybdenum poisoning.  The recommended daily value is 70 micrograms.  TheDRIs for molybdenum are 34-45 mcg/day.  


Selenium is an essential trace element in humans and animals.  It is involved in a healthy immune system, the detoxification process and also has high antioxidant activity.  It works synergistically with vitamin E and vitamin C in preventing the formation of free radicals. 

Selenium can be found in meat and grains but is very soil dependent as to how much is present in those foods.  So, areas of the country where the soil is low in selenium produce crops that are also low in selenium content or farm animals deficient in this nutrient.  One of the best sources of selenium is Brazil nuts, which can contain more than 500 micrograms per ounce of nuts. 

The DRIs for selenium are 40-55 mcg/day.  Excess selenium should not be consumed, as this can lead to selenium toxicity that can cause numerous health issues.


Zinc is a mineral that is essential to humans and animals, and it plays several vital roles in maintaining good health.  Zinc is involved in more than 200 enzymatic reactions that make up our metabolic processes.  Other vital functions of zinc include:

  • maintaining growth and development;
  • maintaining a healthy, effective immune response;
  • supporting healthy skin and proper wound healing; and
  • supporting sexual maturation and reproduction.

Zinc is found in many food sources including egg yolks, fish, meat (including fish and poultry), seafood, seeds and grains.  Even though it is found in many regularly consumed foods, zinc deficiency is common due to body functions that interfere with its absorption such as:

  • zinc loss through perspiration;
  • diarrhea;
  • kidney disease; and,
  • the binding of zinc with phytates from consumed legumes and grains, which makes the zinc unabsorbable.

Because zinc binds with certain foods, it is often recommended that at least some of your daily zinc supplements be taken in the evening (about two hours away from dinner) or at bedtime. 

Zinc deficiency can result in loss of taste and/or smell, delayed sexual maturation and a depressed immune response.  The DRIs for zinc are 8-11 mg/day.

Other trace metals that may prove essential in tiny amounts include boron, vanadium, nickel and cobalt however, the science is not currently evidentiary.


1,3 “Why Are Minerals More Important Than Vitamins?” Mineralife, mineralifeonline.com/why are-minerals-more-important-than-vitamins/.
“The Nutrient Interrelationships of Minerals – Vitamins – Endocrines and Health.” cancercelltreatment.com/2015/01/31/the-nutrient-interrelationships-of-minerals-vitamins-endocrines-and-health/.
“Minerals: Their Functions and Sources-Topic Overview.” WebMDwww.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/tc/minerals-their-functions-and-sources-topic-overview.
Home | The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine | National-Academies.org | Where the Nation Turns for Independent, Expert Advice, nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRI-Tables/2_%20RDA%20and%20AI%20Values_Vitamin%20and%20Elements.pdf?la=en.


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5 THINGS! You Didn’t Know About GABA with Niacinamide & Inositol

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For Summer Dessert – Fresh Fruit Lime Salad

There is no better way to beat the summertime heat than with fresh fruit.  It is sweet and refreshing, and can be added to the side of almost any dish.  Try out this great fresh fruit lime salad at your next event – it’ll be sure to satisfy!

Fresh Fruit Lime Salad

2 Cups Blueberries

2 Cups Green Grapes

2 Cups sliced ripe strawberries

2 Tablespoons of raw honey (or less if you wish)

Juice of one lime

Zest of half a lime


Mix all together and enjoy!!! Refrigerate any leftovers!!

So fresh and colorful at any event!!

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How to Find a New Doctor – Some Helpful Hints

Your insurance has changed or maybe you have been given a diagnosis that requires a specialist to treat you. You are looking for a new doctor and don’t really know where to start. The following information might be helpful as you begin your search for a new physician.

  • Ask your friends, family or your current doctor (if you are looking for a specialist) who they use and if they are happy. It is always reassuring to receive a name from someone you know and trust.
  • Read the reviews online for your doctor. Not only check out the number of stars they are given, but read the reviews to see if this would be a person you want to work with long-term. Do they listen carefully to your concerns? Are they easy to talk to? Do they explain things fully to you, so you understand the issues and options? How much time do they spend with their patients? How long does it take to get an appointment? Are they willing to call or email you with results? 
  • Check out where they went to college and any specialized training they may have. A doctor’s profile should include where they went to medical school and which hospital attended for their internship/residency . The magazine US World and News Report does an issue each year ranking the best hospitals in the United States. It’s worth a look to see if your prospective physician did their under graduate work at one of these hospitals.
  • If this is a concern for you, do they incorporate alternative modes of care with Western Medicine? Are they supportive of supplements, acupuncture and other modalities of care? Do you see them each visit or do you see a nurse practitioner after the initial consult? 
  • There are professional groups who review physicians. Check with them. At minimum Google your doctor. In this day and age, a lot can be learned from this easy source of information.  Call the Medical Board to see if any complaints or legal actions have been filed against them.
  • Check to see if the doctor accepts your insurance and if they are in the network. A quick call can save you a lot of money if the answer is no to either of the above. If you are on Medicare, and need an injection, make sure the provider’s office will bill both part D and Part B of Medicare. The trend these days is to have your injections done at the pharmacy, but are you OK with that? 
  • How does it feel when you walk into the office? A lot can be learned by how you feel about the people up front. Do they have a lab on site? Can they do X-rays? It all depends on what your needs are. 
  • If you rely on public transportation, are there offices on a bus line or within walking distance. Do they validate parking if you are driving?

These are just guidelines to use in your search. Sometimes it all comes down to how your gut feels about the person. Good luck with your search.

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July 28 was Parents’ Day! Give Them the Gift of Bone Health

One in every three individuals age 65 or older will suffer from a fall. These falls result in injuries as minor as a scratch but can be much worse resulting in hip fractures, head injuries and in some cases even death. Understanding who is at risk for falling and what steps to take to help prevent falls from occurring can be potentially life saving. 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in older adults and 20 to 30 percent of falls result in moderate to severe injuries. 

The risk of falling increases with age and individuals 75 and older who suffer from a fall are more than 4 times as likely to be admitted into an elder care facility, if they are not currently residing in one. 

Though the outcomes of falls can be devastating, the risk of falling can be decreased with a few simple interventions. Scientists have linked a number of personal risk factors to falling. The greatest risk for falling, resulting in nearly 30 percent of all falls are accidents and a person’s environment. Many extrinsic factors such as bad lighting, staircases and uneven surface can be corrected to help eliminate falls. These are just a few of the many risk factors the elderly face on a daily basis.  

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention it is estimated that every 14 seconds a senior citizen is treated for injuries caused by a fall, every 29 minutes one of them dies following a fall.  That means that more than 5,000 fall-related injuries occur everyday in the United States and every year more than 2 million older individuals are admitted to the hospital for treatment. 

In 2012 it was reported that fall injuries cost over $36 billion and this number is expected to rise by $20 billion in the next six years.  

The graphic below shows the percentages of fatal and non-fatal fall injuries that occur in adults 65 and older. 

Other Risks Include:

  • Gait/Balance Issues
  • Weak Muscles or Fragile Bones
  • Dizziness
  • Vision Problems 
  • Confusion 
  • Certain Medications

Aging naturally causes bones to get weaker and more brittle, which may lead to weaker body support. Kirkman’s 60 to 90 Bone Health Advanced Formula is specially formulated to support strong bones and teeth and help maintain and/or improve bone strength for seniors. There is evidence in human intervention studies that vitamins K and D, a classic in bone metabolism, work synergistically to improve bone health. Boron is also included based on studies that indicate that boron improves body stores of calcium and magnesium and improves bone density. Boron accomplishes this by aiding the body’s retention of these minerals and limiting their urinary excretion.

If you missed our recent promotion for the Bone Health Advanced Formula for Parents’ Day, take this opportunity for another chance to get this great product! We are re-running our Buy One Get One Free promotion again on July 31, 2019.

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We’re Updating Our Labels!

Kirkman® has a new design for our labels. Over the next year, you will see more of Kirkman’s products relabeled with our new label design until we replace labels on all of our Kirkman® branded products.

 New elements of the new design include:

  • Gold banding to highlight important visual areas and information.
  • Icons or graphics that identify the free of status for six common allergens including gluten, casein, dairy, eggs, nuts and GMO.
  • More visible “Gluten Free” and content description text (i.e. 360 vegetarian capsules).
  • A QR code linked to Kirkman’s website.

You may see some products where an alpha designation has been added to the product number, which is strictly for Kirkman’s accounting of its market channel.

We will also be changing the bottle sizes of some products to consolidate our bottle inventory, which will result in faster delivery of products to you.

Perhaps the biggest design change is the replacement of our Ultra Tested® seal with our Purity Tested® seal that we think customers will understand and like better.  The new Purity Tested seal will certify the exact same protocol for testing 900+ environmental contaminants as our Ultra Tested® seal. 

Also, all product formulas will remain the same for each product number.     

We hope you like our new design and we’d like to know if you do. Please e-mail us your comments to webmaster@kirkmangroup.com.

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